Rome was founded in 753 BCE by Romulus and Remus located along the Mediterranean Sea. Rome expanded vastly and became the largest empire of the ancient era with the population of 50 to 80 million population. Rome started as an Iron Age hunt village in the mid of 8th country BC. It had expanded into 6.5 million square kilometers, civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire during its 12 centuries of existences. Rome history was divided into three different era -Before the rise of Rome, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire. In the list I have tried to covered most of the important events that occurred in Roman history before the beginning of A.D
10. Roman Empire Begun in 753 BCE brothers Romulus and Remus
The twin brother Romulus and Remulus were abandoned by their parents. It was believed that they were tossed by their parents into the Tiber River. The basket ran aground and was found by the mother wolf, who was believed to be the mother of two legend. The wolf took care of both baby for a while before it was being found by the shepherd. The shepherd adopted the two baby. When both of them became adult they decided to found a city where they were adopted at their earliest childhood by the wolf. There was certain disagreement between Romulus and Remus about the site location of the city. Romulus killed Remus the city Rome was named after his name. The Archaeologist still provides the several view point about the existence of life before Rome was found. However, Romulus is taken as founder of Rome city with his brother Remulus.
9. Rome Became Republic 509 BCE
Roman was developed into the big city empire, ruled by king at the beginning. In 509 BCE Romans formed a new structure of government- The Republic. The roman structure was followed partly over centuries in the different countries. The Roman republic starts when the roman overthrew their Etruscan conqueror. Etruscan had ruled Romans for hundreds of years. They setup the new government once they were freed from Etruscan dominion. The new government allows the citizen to select the representative to rule on their behalf. The citizen of Rome differenced themselves from non-citizen and slaves by wearing a toga. There were a variety of class between citizen as well with the different privileged and social status.
8. The Laws of the Twelve Tables 449 BCE
The Law of Twelve Tables was one of the earliest surviving law codes. There was a struggle between Patricians (privileged class), Plebeians (common people) to protect the legal, social and civil rights. A commission of ten men was appointed called Decemviri at 433 BCE to write a code of law that is suitable for both parties. Before the Twelve law the private law comprised by the Roman civil law was applied to the Roman Citizen. The law of the twelve table can found here .
7. Hannibal invades Italy 218 BCE
Hannibal was a Carthaginian military commander who was popularly known as one of the best and most talented commander in the history. After the first Punic war there was a temporary peace between Carthage and Romans. Both economics was dependent in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the commerce trade lanes from the Eastern countries like Greece and Lebanon was purely dependent on Mediterranean Sea. After the death of Hannibal father Hamilcar, Hannibal came into power. He started preparing to defeat Roman. After the years of preparation, Hannibal was ready. During the first engagement Hannibal’s cavalry won a victory over Scipio’s forces near the Ticinus River, followed by the victor at Trebia River. Hannibal planned to control northern Italy. Roman withdraw all its force from central Italy to prepared for the Hannibal attack.
6. The city of Roma expelled all non-Roman citizens (except slaves) 98 BCE
There was a drastic point in Roman history where non-Romans weren’t allowed to stay in Rome. All non-Romans except slaves were expelled from Rome.
5. Roma introduces the gold coin “aureus” 50 BCE
Roman introduced its first Gold coin name Aureus. It was valued at 25 silver denarii. The aureus was used in most of the trading from 1st Century BC to 4th Century AD which was later replaced by Solidus. The size of Aureus was like denarius but little be heavier due to the higher density of Gold.
4. Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome 45 BCE
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on 12 July 100 BC in Rome. He is considered as greatest military strategist and brilliant politicians of all time. Caesar conquest the Gaul by 51 BC. He was the first Romans General that built bridge across the Rhine and commenced the invasion of Britain. The achievement provided Caesar’s the supreme military power. He implemented the reforms of government and roman society overthrewing already existing government and proclaimed as the Dictator of Rome.
3. Julius Caesar was assassinated 44 BCE
The Julius Caesar was assassinated on March 15(Ides of March) 44 BC by his own senators. The plan was led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. They stabbed Caesar at the location next to the Theater of Pompey.
2. Roman Empire began 27 BCE
Roman civilization changed drastically over the period of the time. Gaius Octavian Thurinus (Julius Caesar’s nephew) became the first emperor of Rome and took the name Augustus Caesar. Although Julius Caesar ruled Rome as the emperor for a while he was never considered as Emperor. He was title as “dictator”. Augustus ruled the Roman Empire from 31 BCE to 14 BCE. During his time he made many remarkable changes in Rome. The Roman Empire faced predigest amount of stability and prosperity during its first two centuries which is also known as Pax Romana (“Roman Peace”).
1. Augustus ended pontifex maximus 12 BCE
Pontifex Maximus was the highest religious post in the Ancient Rome. It was only opened patricians until 254 BC. Later plebeian started occupying the post and suddenly it became politicized. When Augustus consolidated power. He had given the right to appoint other pontifices. The election of pontifices ended. The new Emperor was given all religious dignity and the responsibility for the entire Roman state
There are many notable events in Rome before A.D. Rome surpassed the drastic change. The political and social structure had changed dramatically over the period since its foundation. There had been a lot of change in the religion and architecture of Rome. It is still believed that Rome had the most advanced architecture, culture, social structure is greatly influenced and followed in the different part of the world.