Civilization in Egypt holds many facts which are hidden within themselves and are never revealed. The great land along the banks of Nile has been extraordinarily mentioned in the modern as well as the ancient history. Around 3100BC, after the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, Pharaoh was the supreme for the rituals which were carried out. Egyptian deities were worshipped by the people and were considered as the form of nature that they should not make angry. So what were these natural forms which the population of ancient Egypt used to worship and offer their prayers. Lets’ view at the surface to the top 10 worshipped ancient gods of Egyptian Civilization.
1. AMUN-Ra “The Hidden One”
As Zeus in Greek, Amun-Ra or Amon in Egypt is considered as Kings of Gods and Goddesses. Believed as the Father of the Pharaohs, Amun’s female version is Amunet and is considered as the “The Female Hidden One”. Forming the “Theban Triad”, Amun and Mut along with their offspring Khonsu “Moon God” were worshipped throughout the ancient Egypt. Amun was not only worshipped in Egypt, but also outside Egypt as Amun-Ra after the amalgamation with the Sun God Ra of Ancient Egypt.
2. MUT “The Mother Goddess”
Mut meaning Mother in Egyptian language, is a primal deity in Egyptian who wears two crowns on her head each representing Upper and Lower Egypt. Also titled as “She who gives birth, but was herself not born of any”, Mut is represented as Vulture in hieroglyphs. With different integration with various other deities Mut is portrayed as a Cat, Cobra, Cow and even Lioness. Mother of Khonsu, Mut with her different associations with many arbitraries was supported by many rulers of Egypt who followed the civilization.
3. OSIRIS “The King of Living”
Considered as an oldest child of Earth God ZEB and Sky Goddess NUT, Osiris is worshipped as God of the afterlife as Egyptian believe there is life after death. Painted with green skin in the portrayals, Osiris was a god of vegetation which indicated Renewal and Growth and took in charge for the fertile flooding and the vegetation around the Nile banks. Osiris married his own sister Isis and was murdered by his own brother Seth. Despite being murdered by his own brother, Osiris was brought back to life by the magic of Isis for conceiving a child. Horus is the offspring of the Osiris and Isis, who avenged his father’s death and arose as new king of Egypt while Osiris became the God of the Underworld and assisted for the afterlife of the Pharaohs and even the population.
4. ANUBIS “The Divine Embalmer”
Before Osiris took over, Anubis patrolled the Afterlife. Being a psychopomps Anubis was the offspring of Ra and Nephthys was known for mummifying the dead ones and guiding the dead soul towards the afterlife. Having his skin tone black, he is symbolized as the dark Nile deposits which eased off farming and making it a successful one. With the head of a jackal and a body of the man Anubis was also symbolized Renaissance and the staining of the dead bodies after the embalming (Preserving the dead human remains).
5. RA “The God of Sun & Radiance”
A midday sun as identified Ra or Re holds important position in the Egyptian history. The God of Sun who has a sun disk around his head is believed to have created this world. Every sunrise and sunset was symbolized as renewal process. Portrayed as a falcon headed man, he and Horus shared an association which led him known as the Horus of the Horizon. Many ancient Egyptian gods were merged with Ra and many were created by him as well with some rival gods like Ptah, Isis and Apep.
6. HORUS “God of Vengeance”
Horus has a special position in the Ancient Egypt. Considered as the offspring of the Osiris and Isis, he avenged his father’s death and ruled Egypt. As per other myth he is considered as the brood of the Zeb and Nut, however this falcon headed man with the crown of red and white was worshipped as the God of Sky, War, Protection, Light. The eye of Horus or the Wedjat Eye was personified as the goddess Wadjet and was popularly known as “The Eye of the Ra”. It symbolized that everything is being watched upon from above.
7. THOTH “God of Knowledge and Wisdom”
An arbitrator who settled the disputes between good and evil, Thoth is considered as the god self created. Master of both physical and divine laws, he along with his counterpart Ma’at maintained the universe by the mastery in calculations. Egyptians acknowledge him as an author of science, philosophy and magic. An ibis or baboon headed man was considered to be the most learned god in the ancient history. Earlier considered as moon god for keeping the time count even when the sun is not there, Thoth is recognized as the one who created a 365 day calendar.
8. HATHOR “Goddess of Motherhood”
Rendered as “Mistress of the West”, Hathor was worshipped as she welcomed the dead into the next life. An offspring of Ra, she exemplified motherhood and feminine love. Egyptians offered prayer to her as Goddess of Music, Dance. She is believed to provide a blessing as a helper of women during pregnancy and childbirth. Affectionate, Humble and Kind to all dead and living she was also known as Lady of Heaven, Earth and Underworld.
9. SEKHMET “Goddess of War and Healing”
Leading and Protecting the Pharaohs in the war who is the daughter of Ra, Sekhmet is depicted as a lioness in ancient Egypt known for her fierce characters. Also known as “The Powerful One” she demolished the enemies of her allies. Her appearance had a solar disk with Uraeus which was coupled with royalty and divine. Sekhmet assisted goddess Ma’at in the Judgement Hall of Orisis which also made her known as an arbitrator.
10. GEB “God of Earth”
Also described as the Father of Snakes Geb was a provider of a crop and healing. With goose on his head this bearded man was believed to have caused earthquakes whenever he laughed. Known as the offspring Shu (the god of air) and Tefnut (the goddess of moisture), Geb has an important role in the Book of the Dead as who weighs the heart of the dead in the Judgment Hall of Orisis. Egyptians believe that he will keep hold of the soul of the wicked.
Final Conclusion: In ancient Egypt, god and goddess were the mere depiction of all the fundamental necessities required for sustaining life. The cults were developed and many associations can be seen because of the interconnection between the essentials for the living. Pretty much hopeful, everything that made life possible was considered as god and goddess in Ancient Egypt.