Ancient Civilizations: The Ultimate Guide

Our world transforms from hunter gatherer bands to the more organized social hierarchies and institutional government. The invention and discoveries by the hunter gatherer groups led to the formation of more organized social groups where the concept of trade, agriculture, and division of labor started to flourish. It takes us thousands of years to achieve this remarkable journey of evolution. Before discussing, how civilization started; we should go back to 6 million years ago. The first evidence of two walking legs, earliest human, known as Sahelanthropus tchadensis was discovered in 2001, which is predicted to exist on earth around 6 to 7 million years ago.


Paleontologists have discovered weapons, human skeleton, and sculptures in different part of Europe, Asia, and Africa. These objects are ordinarily buried under the ground, which are often recovered from a stratum of gravel or clay. This gave birth to the new science Prehistoric Archaeology. This period is called prehistory because it is more ancient than the written history. It is divided into four periods, called Ages:

  1. Stone Age
  2. Bronze Age
  3. Iron Age

All the country didn’t live in the same age in the same period of time. When Egyptian started using the Iron, Greek was still in the Bronze Age, Barbarians of present day “Denmark” was in the Stone Age.

How the civilization started?

Human learn to use tools, to make their task easier. The discovery of the fire emerged the concept of storing food for future uses. The division of workforce slowly started to emerged. Human learn to stay in a small group, sharing the food gathered by them. Despite the discovery of fire, human still need to move from different places in order to search for the food.

Agriculture, the biggest discovery in the history of mankind creates a turning point. Humans could now stay in the one place in a larger group for a longer period of time without depending on the hunting. The agriculture could feed more lives than ever imagined in the history. People started to create more children because they could feed them. The world population grew dramatically.

When the settlement started to grow, conflict started to emerge among the group. People started to realize the need for governance to protect themselves from bad, evil people and to take a good decision on behalf of the community in a need. The concept of power came to rise.  The concept of trading started to flourish, the division of labor was ineluctable, and the taxation system helps a civilization to run prosperously. The new era began in the history – Human Civilization.

A New Beginning of civilization

Architecture of Mesopotamia
Architecture of Mesopotamia : Pic credit: Wikimedia

Around 5,000 years ago, people started settling around the banks of rivers. Rivers made an irrigation for an agriculture easier to feed more people. They started to domesticate animals for food, and started trading one good with another.

The oldest civilization in the history of mankind (3300 BC – 750 BC) – “Mesopotamia” was formed in the eastern Mediterranean bounded on the northeast by the Zagros Mountains.

Lists of Civilizations


Major Invention in Ancient Civilization

There has been a lot of myth and controversy about the oldest civilization. For an instant, the discovery of the underwater kingdom in Dwarka puts a lot of questions among archaeologist. Dwarka was mentioned in the various famous Sanskrit epic such as; the Mahabharata, the Skanda Purana, the Bhagavata Purana, the Bhagavata, the Vishnu Purana, and the Harivansha. Archaeologist has been researching about it. However, there is no any concrete result about it. The very interesting thing about this discovery is that: Dwarka lies near to the Indus valley civilization, one of the oldest civilization on the earth.

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